## Optical Communications Questions and Answers Part-7

1. A multimode fiber has RMS pulse broadening per km of 12ns/km and 28ns/km due to material dispersion and intermodal dispersion resp. Find the total RMS pulse broadening.
a) 30.46ns/km
b) 31.23ns/km
c) 28.12ns/km
d) 26.10ns/km

Explanation: The overall dispersion in multimode fibers comprises both chromatic and intermodal terms. The total RMS pulse broadening σT is given by
$\sigma_{T}=(\sigma_m^2+\sigma_i^2)^{1/2}$
Where σm = RMS pulse broadening due to material dispersion
σi = RMS pulse broadening due to intermodal dispersion.

2. Most of the power in an optical fiber is transmitted in fiber cladding.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: Most of the power in optical fiber is transmitted in fiber core. This is because in multimode fibers, majority of modes propagating in the core area are far from cutoff. Hence more power is transmitted.

3. A single mode fiber has a zero dispersion wavelength of 1.21μm and a dispersion slope of 0.08 psnm-2km-1. What is the total first order dispersion at wavelength 1.26μm.
a) -2.8psnm-1 km-1
b) -3.76psnm-1 km-1
c) -1.2psnm-1 km-1
d) 2.4psnm-1 km-1

Explanation: The total first order dispersion for fiber at two wavelength is obtained by
DT(1260 nm) = λS0/4 [1-(λ0/λ)4]
= (1260*0.08*10-12)/4 * (1-[1550/1260]4)
= -3.76psnm-1km-1
Where
λ0 = zero dispersion wavelength
λ = wavelength
S0 = dispersion slope
DT = total first order dispersion.

4. The dispersion due to material, waveguide and profile are -2.8nm-1km-1, 20.1nm-1km-1 and 23.2nm-1km-1respectively. Find the total first order dispersion?
a) 36.2psnm-1 km-1
b) 38.12psnm-1 km-1
c) 40.5psnm-1 km-1
d) 20.9psnm-1 km-1

Explanation: The total dispersion is given by
DT = DM + DW + DP(psnm-1km-1)
Where
DW = waveguide dispersion
DM = Material dispersion
DP = profile dispersion.

5. Dispersion-shifted single mode fibers are created by __________
a) Increasing fiber core diameter and decreasing fractional index difference
b) Decreasing fiber core diameter and decreasing fractional index difference
c) Decreasing fiber core diameter and increasing fractional index difference
d) Increasing fiber core diameter and increasing fractional index difference

Explanation: It is possible to modify the dispersion characteristics of single mode fibers by tailoring of some fiber parameters. These fiber parameters include core diameter and relative index difference.

6. An alternative modification of the dispersion characteristics of single mode fibers involves achievement of low dispersion gap over the low-loss wavelength region between __________
a) 0.2 and 0.9μm
b) 0.1 and 0.2μm
c) 1.3 and 1.6μm
d) 2 and 3μm

Explanation: Dispersion characteristics can be altered by changing fiber parameters and wavelength. The achievement of low dispersion gap over the region 1.3 and 1.6μm modifies the dispersion characteristics of single mode fibers.

7. The fibers which relax the spectral requirements for optical sources and allow flexible wavelength division multiplying are known as __________
a) Dispersion-flattened single mode fiber
b) Dispersion-enhanced single mode fiber
c) Dispersion-compressed single mode fiber
d) Dispersion-standardized single mode fiber

Explanation: The dispersion-flattened single mode fibers (DFFS) are obtained by fabricating multilayer index profiles with increased waveguide dispersion. This is tailored to provide overall dispersion say 2psnm-1km-1 over the wavelength range 1.3 to 1.6μm.

8. For suitable power confinement of fundamental mode, the normalized frequency v should be maintained in the range 1.5 to 2.4μm and the fractional index difference must be linearly increased as a square function while the core diameter is linearly reduced to keep v constant. This confinement is achieved by?
a) Increasing level of silica doping in fiber core
b) Increasing level of germanium doping in fiber core
c) Decreasing level of silica germanium in fiber core
d) Decreasing level of silica doping in fiber core

Explanation: The tailoring of fiber parameters provides suitable power confinement. These parameters may be diameter, index-difference, frequency etc. The doping level of germanium contributes to the tailoring of fiber parameters; which in turn provides suitable power confinement.

9. The variant of non-zero-dispersion-shifted fiber is called as __________
a) Dispersion flattened fiber
b) Zero-dispersion fiber
c) Positive-dispersion fiber
d) Negative-dispersion fiber