1. ____ programming language is a dialect of S.

a) B

b) C

c) R

d) K

Explanation: S was initiated in 1976 as an internal statistical analysis environment—originally implemented as Fortran libraries.

2. Point out the WRONG statement?

a) Early versions of the S language contain functions for statistical modeling

b) The book Programming with Data by John Chambers documents S version of the language

c) In 1993 Bell Labs gave StatSci (later Insightful Corp.) an exclusive license to develop and sell the S language

d) The book Programming with Data by IBM documents S version of the language

Explanation: Insightful sold its implementation of the S language under the product name S-PLUS.

3. In 2004, ________ purchased the S language from Lucent for $2 million.

a) Insightful

b) Amazon

c) IBM

d) TCS

Explanation: TIBCO is the current owner of the S language and is its exclusive developer.

4. In 1991, R was created by Ross Ihaka and Robert Gentleman in the Department of Statistics at the University of _________

a) John Hopkins

b) California

c) Harvard

d) Auckland

Explanation: In 1993 the first announcement of R was made to the public. Ross’s and Robert’s experience developing R is documented in a 1996 paper in the Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics.

5. Point out the wrong statement?

a) R is a language for data analysis and graphics

b) K is language for statistical modelling and graphics

c) One key limitation of the S language was that it was only available in a commercial package, S-PLUS

d) C is a language for data and graphics

Explanation: In 1996, a public mailing list was created (the R-help and R-devel lists) and in 1997 the R Core Group was formed, containing some people associated with S and S-PLUS.

6. Finally, in _________ R version 1.0.0 was released to the public.

a) 2000

b) 2005

c) 2010

d) 2012

Explanation: Source code for the entire R system is accessible to anyone who wanted to tinker with it.

7. R is technically much closer to the Scheme language than it is to the original _____ language.

a) B

b) C

c) C++

d) S

Explanation: R’s semantics, while superficially similar to S, are quite different.

8. The R-help and _____ mailing lists have been highly active for over a decade now.

a) R-mail

b) R-devel

c) R-dev

d) R-del

Explanation: There is considerable activity on web sites like Stack Overflow as well.

9. Which of the following describes R language?

a) Free

b) Paid

c) Available for free trial only

d) Testing

Explanation: A major advantage that R has over many other statistical packages and is that it’s free.

10. The copyright for the primary source code for R is held by the ______ Foundation.

a) A

b) S

c) C

d) R

Explanation: It is published under the GNU General Public License version.