1. ____ programming language is a dialect of S.
Explanation: S was initiated in 1976 as an internal statistical analysis environment—originally implemented as Fortran libraries.
2. Point out the WRONG statement?
a) Early versions of the S language contain functions for statistical modeling
b) The book Programming with Data by John Chambers documents S version of the language
c) In 1993 Bell Labs gave StatSci (later Insightful Corp.) an exclusive license to develop and sell the S language
d) The book Programming with Data by IBM documents S version of the language
Explanation: Insightful sold its implementation of the S language under the product name S-PLUS.
3. In 2004, ________ purchased the S language from Lucent for $2 million.
Explanation: TIBCO is the current owner of the S language and is its exclusive developer.
4. In 1991, R was created by Ross Ihaka and Robert Gentleman in the Department of Statistics at the University of _________
a) John Hopkins
Explanation: In 1993 the first announcement of R was made to the public. Ross’s and Robert’s experience developing R is documented in a 1996 paper in the Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics.
5. Point out the wrong statement?
a) R is a language for data analysis and graphics
b) K is language for statistical modelling and graphics
c) One key limitation of the S language was that it was only available in a commercial package, S-PLUS
d) C is a language for data and graphics
Explanation: In 1996, a public mailing list was created (the R-help and R-devel lists) and in 1997 the R Core Group was formed, containing some people associated with S and S-PLUS.
6. Finally, in _________ R version 1.0.0 was released to the public.
Explanation: Source code for the entire R system is accessible to anyone who wanted to tinker with it.
7. R is technically much closer to the Scheme language than it is to the original _____ language.
Explanation: R’s semantics, while superficially similar to S, are quite different.
8. The R-help and _____ mailing lists have been highly active for over a decade now.
Explanation: There is considerable activity on web sites like Stack Overflow as well.
9. Which of the following describes R language?
c) Available for free trial only
Explanation: A major advantage that R has over many other statistical packages and is that it’s free.
10. The copyright for the primary source code for R is held by the ______ Foundation.
Explanation: It is published under the GNU General Public License version.